BIS Annual Economic Report 2021

A chapter on CBDCs was pre-released on 23 June; the remaining chapters of the Annual Economic Report 2021 and the Annual Report 2020/21 will be released on 29 June.

Annual Economic Report 2021 by chapter

III. CBDCs: an opportunity for the monetary system

1. Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) offer in digital form the unique advantages of central bank money: settlement finality, liquidity and integrity. They are an advanced representation of money for the digital economy.

2. Digital money should be designed with the public interest in mind. Like the latest generation of instant retail payment systems, retail CBDCs could ensure open payment platforms and a competitive level playing field that is conducive to innovation.

3. The ultimate benefits of adopting a new payment technology will depend on the competitive structure of the underlying payment system and data governance arrangements. The same technology that can encourage a virtuous circle of greater access, lower costs and better services might equally induce a vicious circle of data silos, market power and anti-competitive practices. CBDCs and open platforms are the most conducive to a virtuous circle.

4. CBDCs built on digital identification could improve cross-border payments, and limit the risks of currency substitution. Multi-CBDC arrangements could surmount the hurdles of sharing digital IDs across borders, but will require international cooperation.

https://www.bis.org/publ/arpdf/ar2021e.htm

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